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This is a little collection of essays that are worth a read, but are definitely not essential unless youre studying the Reformation closely. This one is pretty old, and there are other, more up-to-date works to serve as an introduction.This is still pretty good, though, and it stands up against the test of time fairly well. There are three essays here - the first urges a reorientation of Reformation studies away from theological minutia and towards its broader social impact. The second looks at the relationship between humanists and reformers - Moeller argues that even though Luther himself was not a humanist, his parallel ideas attracted a younger generation of reformers who spread and popularized his ideas. It was this communication that separated Luther from earlier critics of the Church, and allowed the Reformation to succeed. The third essay is the most substantial and makes an argument about why Lutheran theology was so popular in northern Germany while Zwingli was preferred in the south. Moeller notes that a trending away from medieval republicanism in cities towards a tighter oligarchy had raised tension in Germany cities even before Luther, and the addition of religious tensions caused the two issues to become intermingled. It was common, for example, that a town would demand lower taxes and a Protestant preacher as part of the same group of demands. This was especially true in the south, which retained a strong communal spirit. Moeller then argues that the communal spirit of the south was more drawn to the theology of Zwingli, while the north preferred Luther. Lutheranism was inherently corporate in outlook – it took away the institution of priesthood and made it a priesthood of all believers and it sanctified work on behalf of the community. However, at the same time, the emphasis on personal faith made more a much more individualistic faith and made it more difficult to tie religion to any sort of external community. For Zwingli and Bucer, however, the church and state were much more intrinsically tied together and were seen as mutually supportive in the creation of a Christian community. Bucer’s ethic was essentially a community ethic. The difference probably derived in part from the fact the Zwingli/Bucer were burghers while Luther was subject of a prince. Zwingli/Bucer were more ‘medieval’ in their focus on the town and salvation was bolstered by a community that promoted conditions that would allow God’s word to be obeyed.

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